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Spiegelneuronen

#1
hallo,

ich arbeite momentan an einer Facharbeit mit dem Thema "Spiegelneuronen als Basis für Empathie". Eine Frage ist im Laufe meiner Recherche unbeantwortet geblieben:
"Welche Sinnesorgane vermitteln zwischen den Handlungen anderer und dem eigenen Nachempfinden?".
Dass die Beobachtung via Sehorgan Aktivität der Spiegelneuronen erzeugt, ist bekannt.
Selbst bei der auditiven Wahrnehmung von Handlungen anderer, lässt sich Aktivität erkennen.
Wie ist es aber mit dem Geruchs-, Tast- und Geschmackssinn?

Danke im Voraus!
 

mik

Administrator
Moderator
#2
So, ich habe vielleicht noch etwas für dich gefunden:

Heidi Hardman schreibt in ihrem Artikel "Mirrors in the mind: New studies elucidate how the brain reflects onto itself the actions of others" 2006:


"There is also evidence that mirror neurons link actions not only with visual stimuli, but also with other types of sensory cues." (http://www.innovations-report.de/html/berichte/studien/bericht-70721.html).

Und hier ein längerer Aufsatz von Christian Keysers, in dem u. a. Ergebnisse in Bezug auf den Geruch angeführt werden: The empathic brain. How the discovery of mirror
neurons changes our understanding of human nature. 2011 (online: http://www.nin.knaw.nl/Portals/0/Department/keysers/EmpathicBrainSampler.pdf)

Hier ein Auszug aus diesem Aufsatz (Hervorhebungen in grüner Farbe von mir), S. 97 ff.:

"Odors per se have the power to trigger intense disgust, but only moderate pleasure. Our main focus is therefore
to find regions that would respond to the experience and observation of disgust, which is intense in both the olfactory and the visual
conditions, and show that these regions are less active for positive emotions, which would serve as a control condition.
After a series of pleasant and unpleasant odors, the experiment is finished. “Some of those smells were terrible!” Valeria sais. “I almost
started retching at one point.” The olfactory part has clearly worked. After running this procedure with a dozen participants, we examined
the data. During the olfactory part of the experiment, only the unpleasant odors had strongly activated a region called the anterior
insula on both sides of the brain. [...] But what happened while our subjects viewed the emotions of others? While watching the movies of facial expressions, the visual
The Empathic Brain and premotor areas of the mirror system that would be involved in making similar facial expressions were activated as if our subjects
automatically mimicked, in the brain, the facial expressions they observed. Now, if there is a mirror system for emotions, the anterior
insula, which is specific for the experience of the disgusting smells, should also have been activated, making participants feel disgusted
themselves. Our data analysis showed that this is exactly what happened[
51]. We were delighted. Over a decade after the discovery of mirror neurons in the motor system, we had provided the first evidence that
a similar system exists outside the domain of actions. We had unraveled what in the brain causes what the psychologists call facial mimicry,
vicarious activity in the premotor cortex as if doing the same facial expressions, and what they call emotional contagion, vicarious
activity in the insula as if feeling the same emotions."


Gruß

mik